The Creative Class Joins the Working-Class

How is the so-called creative class faring in the ongoing economic crisis?  In three books published in the first decade of this century, Richard Florida argued that America’s future lay in metropolitan regions with a high density of “sexually diverse,” cultural, professional, and high-tech workers whose creativity would attract capital and spur future economic development. Recently, in articles in magazines like and The Atlantic, critics have been debating whether the creative class is undergoing the same economic transformations as the working class.

 Undaunted by the economic crisis and the subsequent, continuing jobless recovery, Florida continues to suggest that the answer to post-industrialization lies in the continued migration of the so-called creative class to a few cosmopolitan urban areas. The transformation in economic geography would produce winners and losers both individually and regionally based on the ability of communities to develop and attract human capital. His Martin Prosperity Institute has contributed to a report ranking nations on the basis of their investment in innovation and technology.  Of course, all of this reflects Florida’s neo-liberal view that such changes are part of the “natural economic order,” and he has consistently attempted to normalize the new emerging economic order.

But despite Florida’s claims, the creative class is not necessarily winning in the current economy.  Like industrial workers before them, they are being affected by the past 30 years of neo-liberal economic reforms characterized by deregulation, marketization, and liberal trade policy that yielded significant corporate profits from the subcontracting, outsourcing, and the casualization of work in unskilled and semi-skilled industries. As the past decade has made clear, corporations and governments have used those same strategies to make employment for skilled workers, including those in the “knowledge industries,” increasingly precarious.

This has been aided by a different model and language of work, drawn from the so-called “creative industries” — those areas where employees, often in the arts and more recently higher education, were willing to give up stable employment in hierarchical organizations and embraced – or at least accepted – contingent employment involving self-directed, entrepreneurial, and cognitive labor. Florida provided much of the language and rationale for that shift, and his ideas had an significant impact on public discussions of economic development and urban renewal. Further, his view had great currency with the growing ranks of mobile, privileged, educated workers who were willing to embrace the high-risk/high reward employment/worker model.

But Florida had relatively little to say about the real working lives of members of the creative class and the changing organization of work produced by the changes he predicted. In fact, as Scott Timberg argues in, the new creative class now shares the same working conditions as many on the other end of the labor market, especially those in the service sector that makes up the majority of today’s working class.  These conditions include uncertainty, temporary or intermittent employment, working in multiple jobs, and accepting jobs for which they are overqualified.  Creative workers, like many in the working class, are isolated from protective legal employment laws and are less likely to have benefits such health insurance, retirement plans, or paid sick leave. Put differently, young educated people, so popularly identified with the creative class, are suffering the same conditions as working and middle class families and could become what Business Week reporter Peter Coy has called a Lost Generation.

As work has eroded and become more episodic, not only does the creative class share the economic conditions of the working class, that group also now shares the working-class’s sense of alienation from American politics and antagonism toward the economic elite who have gained so much ground over the last decade. You need to look no further than the growth of the “Occupy Wall Street” movement.  On the streets of New York and in cities around the country, you see highly educated  young adults joining with displaced working- and middle-class people who believe the American Dream has become nightmare. They have been joined by public and private union members including 300 airline pilots marching in full dress uniform. All are rallying around their shared position as part of the 99% of Americans – a loose coalition much larger and more diverse than any single class.

What brings them together is a politics of resentment that is fueled by growing understanding and anger over the increasing economic inequality in the U.S.  While OWS has focused on Wall Street and government plutocrats, it is expanding and multiplying like an amoeba, in different directions politically and geographically. The issues driving people to occupy not only Wall Street but Public Square in Cleveland and a public park in Kansas City and a dozen other locations are not identical.  Each local group works independently, and they are focusing on issues ranging from the economy and war to agricultural and environmental policy,

As Kathy Newman said in Working-Class Perspectives last week, one of the great things about the OWS movement is its inclusivity. This should not be unexpected. Like the many middle class Americans, the creative class now shares the employment and economic conditions of working people and has shed their sense of difference and superiority over the working class. They now understand that despite the façade of self-direction and creativity, their economic position is every bit as uncertain and unfair as that of many retail, food service, and health care workers.  Just where this new amoeboid politics of resentment goes is anybody’s guess. But we can hope that it will become even more directed at those who are responsible for shaping the current national and global economic conditions that has now engaged and enraged so many people.

John Russo, Center for Working-Class Studies

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10 Responses to The Creative Class Joins the Working-Class

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  4. elecpencil says:

    Good article! In the end we are all wage slaves. If the creative class and working class join in solidarity maybe we can break our chains. Since we are in the same boat it needs to be a battleship so we can fight back. We are all the 99%!.


  5. Sarah Attfield says:

    This is really interesting (never been a fan of Richard Florida!), but although I agree that members of the ‘creative class’ do experience work insecurity, casualised conditions etc, their lives are still very different from the retail worker, call centre worker etc. I work as a ‘casual’ academic – and while the job insecurity, lack of sick pay etc and diminishing career path is frustrating, I do have some autonomy at work and my life is vastly different from my ‘service class’ brothers and sisters (I know, because I started out as a retail worker). So – the solidarity between classes among the OWS movement is encouraging, but the highly educated (even if not highly paid) still have more power than the working classes.


    • Barb Weaver says:

      I was born and raised working class/blue collar. I have a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree and have always been employed in areas that are not art related: retail, clerical, food service/prep…
      I am not so encouraged by fleeting solidarity. When/if the economy recovers,
      the classes will go their separate ways, as always.


  6. I wish I could be so optimistic. To call this group a class is to ignore its
    ideological underpinnings, extreme individuality and a go-it-alone attitude.
    There’s a long step from the social networking of the present to a sense of
    real solidarity. I’d love to see it happen, but while class politics may help
    inform social networking, it is unlikely to be produced by it in any coherent
    John Crawford


  7. Brilliant, John!
    What is so disturbing about how the media cover OWS and the economy in general is that worker suffering is never a problem unless strikes the “wrong” sort of people (e.g., the creative class/college grads). It’s a case of the corporate media not ever being able to see any problem with the economic system unless it affects people just like them (or, just like their targeted audience, which doesn’t include any vision of a working class).


  8. The notion that any type of wage-laborer would be immune to the on-going crisis of capitalism is of course absurd. The issue really is simple, are you a capital owners and controller or are you a wage-laborer? It doesn’t matter if you are a highly paid wage laborer or a lowly paid wage laborer, if you are a wage-laborer then you are screwed, in fact highly paid wage-laborers are the ones likely to be screwed the most, because their high wages are the ones that capitalists stand the most to profit from by eliminating. The low end has already fallen, its the ones at the top who have the farthest to fall.

    Control and ownership of capital has been increasingly consolidated these past 150 years, but especially over the past 30 years. Only roughly 2% of the American population are actual capitalists, i..e real capital owners, less than 1% of the worlds population are actual capitalists.

    Control and ownership of capital has been almost completely stripped from the masses. The future is either the age of neo-feudalism or time for the revolutionary overthrow of capitalism.


  9. Kathy Newman says:

    Great post, John. It looks from the outside like the Creative Class is out in force. Lots of great signs, costumes, and agit prop mixed in with the traditional union movement rooted singing and chanting. If Florida is right that there is something called the “Creative Class,” then it seems clear that this class can do a lot more than renovate old houses and start public park projects!


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